Image classification by addition of spatial information based on histograms of orthogonal vectors
The Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) model is widely used for image classification, object recognition and image retrieval problems. In BoVW model, the local features are quantized and 2-D image space is represented in the form of order-less histogram of visual words. The image classification performance suffers due to the order-less representation of image. This paper presents a novel image representation that incorporates the spatial information to the inverted index of BoVW model. The spatial information is added by calculating the global relative spatial orientation of visual words in a rotation invariant manner. For this, we computed the geometric relationship between triplets of identical visual words by calculating an orthogonal vector relative to each point in the triplets of identical visual words. The histogram of visual words is calculated on the basis of the magnitude of these orthogonal vectors. This calculation provides the unique information regarding the relative position of visual words when they are collinear. The proposed image representation is evaluated by using four standard image benchmarks. The experimental results and quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the proposed image representation outperforms the existing state-of-the-art in terms of classification accuracy.