Νομικές Ρυθμίσεις περί Ρομποτικής Χειρουργικής: Παρούσα Κατάσταση, Προβλήματα, Προοπτικές
The starting point for minimally invasive surgery was in 1987 with the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy and for robotic surgery just in 1985 with PUMA 560, a robot that performed neurosurgical biopsies with more precision. Evaluating the advantages of robotic surgery in the effectuation of surgeries, in different fields, until now technically difficult or infeasible, in the enhancement of dexterity, and in the existence of increased degrees of freedom we consider that they outmatch the disadvantages that are linked with the effectiveness of this new technology, the almost prohibitive cost, the size, the lack of compatible instruments and equipment. Intuitive Surgical owns the surgical system da Vinci, as well as the surgical systems Zeus, Aesop, Hermes and Socrates. The unambiguous advantages, such as the reduction of pain and the faster recovery and consequently, the reduction of hospital stay in half and of hospital expenses, have lead to the approval of the da Vinci by FDA for commercial use. With the introduction of robotic systems, robotics in cardiac surgery has become particularly useful, with the mitral valve robotic surgery and the cardiac revascularization with the da Vinci. The impovements in computer technology, mechanics, minimally invasive surgery, along with new neuronavigation techniques, have created the concept of digital robotic surgery, given that the growing need for more magnification and smaller instruments had made impossible for the human hand to perform its duties. NeuroMate (1987), Minerva, RAMS, NeuRobot, and Spine Assist Robot are some of the systems used in robotic neurosurgery. Neurosurgery of the future will include systems that can perform a wide spectrum of neurosurgical operations, increased use of teleconference and telesurgery, improvements in artificial intelligence and virtual reality where robots will be able to sense what the surgeon is thinking providing the proper response. Urological surgery has embraced the use of robotics and especially of telesurgery and the multimedia, telecommunications, and robotics integration. Virtual reality simulators would allow, additionally to their other advantages, surgeons to plan operations before making any incision. The implementation of robotic surgery is manifested in the form of THA and TKP in preoperative planning, but also during the operation with collecting and introducing data in a surgical system and with the robot-surgeon interaction.