Academic, Socio-emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons
The present paper (1) examined variables which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cyber-victimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of 2,329 gymnasium students (50% girls, Mage = 13.08, SD = .86) from 120 classes, grade 7 to 9, from six Cypriot schools, completed self-report questionnaires. Traditional bullying was predicted by cyberbullying and socio-emotional, academic and demographic variables. Cyberbullying was predicted by traditional bullying and academic variables. Traditional victimization was predicted by cyber-victimization, socio-emotional variables and being male. Cybervictimization was predicted by traditional victimization and academic variables. Compared with uninvolved adolescents, traditional, cyber and mixed bullies had lower levels of academic variables; traditional and mixed victims had higher levels of emotional problems and affective empathy; and mixed bully-victims had lower levels of both academic and socioemotional variables. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.